Many countries or regions have already begun using desalination techniques as a means of converting natural resources into consumable finished products. Elaborating on the methods or technology for carrying out the desalination process which is broadly classified as thermal technology and membrane technology.
Different techniques used
Thermal technology is a process that involves heating saline water and collecting the condensed vapor to produce pure water. The conversion of seawater into distilled pure water for human consumption may be a cost-intensive process.
These are three stages for carrying out the thermal desalination process.
1. Multi-stage flash distillation
2. Multiple-effect distillation
3. Vapour compression
4. Solar desalination
Whereas membrane technology can be subdivided into two categories:
1. Electrodialysis or Electrodialysis reversal
2. Membrane technology
The basic process of desalination
But before understanding these different methods for desalination let’s quickly get through the basic process done while carrying out the desalination process by membrane technology. The basic process of desalination is:
1. Input of saline water
2. Pre-treatment of saline water
3. High-pressure pumps
4. Membrane assembly
5. Collection of brine and distilled water
6. Post-treatment of distilled water
7. Fresh consumable water
Seawater is collected from the ocean and pumped to the pre-treatment facility. While treating the water it removes solids and other suspended particles. Sodium hypochlorite is added to the water to remove dissolved particles and organisms present in the water which would cause fouling in the membranes. During the pre-treatment process, different series and types of filters are used to filter suspended particles. The water is then pumped into the membranes through high-pressure pumps. From the membrane assembly, brine and desalinated water are discharged. Now, what do we understand by the term brine? Brine is a kind of water solution consisting of high concentrations of one or more than one kind of salt. While on the other end, desalinate water is collected which cannot be consumed directly. The collected water is then sent for post-treatment. After post-treatment desalinate water is ready to consume.
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